Le Design des Objets du Quotidien par Don Norman

Trente-deux ans après la première édition, Eyrolles vient de publier la traduction française du bestseller de Don Norman « The Design of Everyday Things ». Cela devrait contribuer à diffuser encore un peu plus largement la parole du créateur, évangéliste et guru de l’UX Design.

J’ai eu l’occasion pour ma part de lire la version anglaise de cet ouvrage. Très pédagogique et illustré d’exemples de la vie quotidienne, l’ouvrage nous présente de nombreuses problématiques engendrées par le design d’objets ou d’interfaces.

Affordance et signifier

A partir d’affordances (capacités d’un objet à suggérer son utilisation) et de signifiants (moyens présentant la potentialité d’un objet), Don Norman analyse de nombreux produits du quotient tel que poignées de porte, boutons d’ascenseur, réglage de siège auto… Il décrit également l’utilisation de conceptual models pour représenter des systèmes complexes tel qu’un thermostat de réfrigérateur/congélateur afin de permettre à l’utilisateur lambda, non expert en thermodynamique, d’en appréhender le fonctionnement correct.

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Don Norman prend l’exemple d’une table de cuisson pour nous exposer l’importance du natural mapping permettant de créer une relation intuitive entre les contrôles (boutons comandant l’allumage d’un feu) et les action (allumage du feu correspondant). Ainsi, en Figure A, la disposition en ligne des quatre boutons de contrôle ne permet pas de déterminer intuitivement comment allumer un feu, même avec les libellés Back et Front placés sous les boutons. Sur la Figure B, le regroupement deux par deux des contrôles permet de déduire plus facilement le feu concerné mais nécessite encore de se référer aux libellés. Enfin, Figures C et D, la disposition logique des commandes permet d’allumer facilement un feu et l’utilisation de libellés sur les contrôles n’est plus nécessaire.

Vous avez dit TEMP ?

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Je me suis prêté à l’exercice en analysant ma table à induction. J’ai ainsi remarqué l’existence de boutons intitulés TEMP que je n’avais jusqu’à présent jamais remarqué. Utilisant cet appareil depuis plus de huit ans, cela montre bien comment après une phase de découverte et d’apprentissage, on utilise nos objets du quotidien de manière quasi-automatique (correspondant au niveau comportemental de notre système émotionnel). L’usage de ce nouveau contrôle ne m’évoque cependant rien de connu : le libellé TEMP pourrait éventuellement indiquer un réglage de Température mais le pictogramme associé ressemblant à une part de pizza ou à un TimeTimer ne m’apporte pas d’indication explicite. En testant ce contrôle, j’arrive tout juste à faire clignoter un chiffre à côté de la zone minuterie mais je n’ai aucune autre indication. Je me suis ainsi résolu à télécharger le mode d’emploi et j’ai alors appris que ce bouton, officiellement intitulé TEMPO, permet « d’afficher le temps écoulé depuis la dernière modification de puissance sur un foyer choisi ». Clairement, l’exemple d’une affordance difficile à appréhender associée à un signifiant pas très efficace…

Le meilleur sinon rien par Mercedes-Benz

Réglage d'un siège d'une Mercedes classe E

L’une des affordances les plus efficaces dans le monde de l’automobile est sans conteste le réglage électrique de sièges hauts de gamme dont les contrôles sont regroupés sous la forme de boutons reproduisant fidèlement la forme d’un siège et permettant de faire bouger / pivoter / vibrer / rafraichir / réchauffer / mémoriser le siège de manière intuitive.

Réglage d'un siège de la nouvelle Mercedes classe S avec des contrôles tactiles.

Une bien belle réussite de Natual Mapping utilisée ainsi depuis des dizaines d’années par Mercedes mais qui ne semble plus convenir aux concepteurs de Stuttgart. Ils viennent en effet de remplacer sur la nouvelle classe S les boutons physiques de réglage par des surfaces tactiles. Résultats : les faux boutons en forme de siège ne bougent plus et il faut poser son doigt exactement au bon droit pour déclencher l’action adéquate. Mais sur quelle surface faut-il appuyer pour faire pivoter un appui-tête ? Sur le dessus, sur le côté ? Faut-il balayer la surface ? Appuyer une fois ? Deux fois ? Avec un doigt ? deux doigts ? Définitivement, le mieux est l’ennemi du bien.

Physical, Cultural, Semantic, and Logical Constraints

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Pour nous décrire par l’exemple les différents types de contraintes, Don Norman s’appuie sur un motard en Lego qu’il s’est procuré en 1988, à la publication de la première version de son ouvrage. Constituée de 15 pièces, il nous montre qu’il est possible d’assembler facilement la figurine sans utiliser de mode d’emploi car des contraintes de différents types ont été judicieusement placées: contrainte culturelle pour le phare jaune à l’avant, contrainte physique pour le porte bagage, contrainte logique pour placer le motard dans le sens du mouvement et contrainte sémantique pour placer l’indication POLICE dans le sens de lecture.

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En reproduisant cette expérience en 2013, à la mise à jour de son ouvrage, Don Norman s’est procuré la nouvelle version du motard en Lego, constituée cette fois-ci de 29 pièces. Résultat : Il a été obligé de consulter les instructions de montages car de nombreuses pièces ne possèdent plus assez de contraintes pour être assemblées facilement. Lego a sans doute essayé de suivre l’évolution de notre monde, plus complexe et difficile à appréhender en augmentant la complexité de sa moto!

La théorie de l’action

Don Norman consacre un chapitre à la psychologie des actions en analysant les manières dont nous interagissons avec notre environnement pour réaliser une tâche spécifique.

Intitulée Théorie de l’action, l’auteur modélise toutes les étapes permettant de répondre à un but spécifique, de l’établissement de celui-ci jusqu’à son évaluation, en mettant en corrélation le niveau de conscience des étapes (conscient ou subconscient), leur niveau de traitement (viscéral, comportemental, réflectif) et les problèmes qui peuvent survenir durant leur exécution (de type oubli ou erreur).

Les étapes s’enchainent de la façon suivante (pdf) : 1/ But à réaliser > 2/ Intention et planification du but > 3/ Spécification d’une suite d’actions pour réaliser ce but, 4/ Exécution des actions spécifiées, 5/ Perception de l’état du système suite aux actions réalisées, 6/ Interprétation de l’état du système, 7/ Evaluation de l’état par rapport au but fixé.

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Checklist, Jidoka et Poka-Yoke

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Don Norman aborde l’utilisation de checklists : très efficace dans l’aviation par exemple car permettant de réduire de manière très significative les erreurs et les oublis.

Afin d’empêcher les erreurs il est également possible de faire appel à des méthodes issues du Japon telles que :

  • Jidoka : Méthode permettant de détecter au plus tôt les défauts afin de ne pas les laisser se propager. Elle a été popularisée par Toyota sur ses lignes de production.
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  • Poka-Yoke : Système anti-erreur assurant que l’erreur ne puisse jamais se produire à l’aide de détrompeurs : de type physique (prises électriques), à l’aide de contrôle de saisie (formulaire) ou bien de type chronologique (pour empêcher de retirer à un DAB ses billets avant sa carte bancaire).
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Le Swiss cheese model

Le Swiss Cheese model de James Reason est sans doute le modèle le plus original de l’ouvrage. L’auteur décompose les tâches d’une réalisation sous la forme de tranches d’emmental et les conditions d’une tâche sous la forme de trous. Afin d’éviter tout accident, il faut éviter que tous les trous ne soient alignés en même temps. Afin de réduire / supprimer les accidents, il faut donc : rajouter des tranches de fromage, diminuer le nombre de trous, rendre les trous plus petits ou alerter quand plusieurs trous sont alignés.

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Cas pratique : analyse de l’affordance d’un objet du quotidien

La mauvaise manière de presser un citron

En analysant quelques objets du quotidien, j’ai découvert un très beau contre-exemple d’affordance perçue. J’ai en effet un presse-citron qui de par la forme de ses coques en demi sphères (le signifier) incite à déposer des demis-citrons bien calé dans l’appareil.

La bonne manière de presser un citron

Or, en retournant le demi-citron, côté bombé contre la coque bombée de l’appareil, j’ai constaté que malgré le positionnement approximatif du fruit dans l’appareil, j’obtenais 20% de jus supplémentaire (et beaucoup moins d’éclaboussures sur les mains et sur le plan de travail) !

Évidemment, tous les pâtissiers professionnels posent le citron correctement car on leur a transmis la bonne manière mais pour un pâtissier amateur, cela demande de la réflexion et au moins une petite expérimentation pour s’assurer qu’il faut bien utiliser son appareil à l’opposé de l’affordance perçue…

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